Main languages: Spanish, 64 official indigenous languages, Bande, Creole, Palanquero (7,470, 2005 Census). 

Main religions: Christianity (majority Roman Catholic), Judaism, indigenous and Afro-Colombian religions. 

Main minority and indigenous groups: According to the 2005 Census, 1,392,623 (3.4 per cent) people belonging to various indigenous peoples, 4,311,757 (10.6 per cent) Afro-Colombian and 4,857 (0.01 per cent) Roma (2005 Census).  

The National Administrative Department of Statistics (DANE) recognizes 87 indigenous peoples in Colombia. Other estimates are significantly higher, such as those presented by the National Indigenous Organization of Colombia (ONIC), which recognises 102 indigenous peoplesWhile the last population Census was carried out in 2018 and some of the results have now been published, comprehensive figures have not yet been released for minorities and indigenous peoples. Indeed, ONIC, representing 80 per cent of Colombia’s indigenous population, has denounced DANE for failing to comply with previous consultation agreements to roll out the 2018 Census in indigenous territories, thereby decreasing the representation of indigenous communities in the population survey. 

Colombia also has the second largest Afro-descendant population in Latin America after Brazil. It includes palenqueros, the descendants of maroon communities, and Raizales, the Englishspeaking Caribbean communities, in San Andres and Providencia. Numbering more than 4.3 million (2005 Census), some 85 per cent of Afro-Colombians live in urban areas. They are the majority population in towns in the North West, with significant numbers also inhabiting low-income settlements in the major cities including Bogotá.

Updated June 2020

Colombia’s long history of civil conflict, involving government forces, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and a host of other rebel insurgencies, paramilitary groups and criminal gangs, has spanned more than 50 years and caused the deaths of more than 260,000 people, with over 7 million others displacedMany of the victims are from peaceful indigenous, Afro-Colombian and other rural communities inhabiting the remote and mountainous areas where the fighting has raged. Reflecting a broader context of discrimination and exclusion, minorities and indigenous peoples have been disproportionately affected by the violence, with many communities targeted with violence and eviction from their lands by rebel groups and criminal gangs seeking to gain control over their resources.  

While there have been positive developments in Colombia’s peace process, most notably the ceasefire agreement drafted between the government and FARC in 2016the outcomes so far have been mixed. Among other provisions, the agreement outlined demobilization of FARC fighters in return for political participation, targeted development programmes for rebel-held areas and other guarantees, including universal access to education and clean water. However, the Colombian government has also been accused of failing to deliver on many of its promises of development and infrastructure in marginalized and impoverished areas of the countryside, where lawlessness, poverty and continued drug cultivation persist.  

This has raised fears that some fighters could remobilize in the future if confidence in the Peace Agreement breaks down, particularly since Iván Duque Márquez became President in August 2018. A vocal critic of the 2016 Peace Agreement who regarded many of its provisions on reconciliation and rehabilitation as too lenient, Duque has taken a number of steps to revise the terms of the agreement since taking powerIn the meantime, a lasting agreement with the armed National Liberation Army (ELN) remains elusive, with relations further undermined by a deadly car bombing in Bogotá in January 2019 that killed 20 people and injured many others. Further worrying news came during 2019, when ex-FARC leader Iván Márquez issued a video in August calling upon his followers to take up arms again.  

Both indigenous and Afro-Colombian communities share similar challenges of targeted violence, dispossession from communal lands and limited access to health, education and livelihood opportunities. To varying degrees these factors are driving displacement and migration across the country, which in turn is leading to increased urbanization, even from more remote communities.  Indeed, for activists the threat of violence remains high, with 252 killed in 2018, a marked rise from the 191 murdered in 2017, according to data by the Institute of Studies for Peace and Development.  Minority and indigenous communities have borne the brunt of this violence, with the National Indigenous Organization of Colombia (ONIC) reporting in January 2019 that roughly 40 per cent of the 467 human rights defenders killed since the signing of the peace accord in November 2016 were indigenous and minority community leaders. 

Many of these assassinations of right activists have been attributed to obscure right-wing paramilitary groups, often using fronts of legitimate organizations, killing or displacing people in areas previously controlled by FARC, in part to control the coca or mining operations in these regions.  Furthermore, predominantly in the regions of Chocó, Antioquia, Cauca and Norte de Santander, human rights violations continued against Afro-Colombians and indigenous communities, including forced displacement and forced confinement of these communities within their territories, thereby limiting freedom of movement and access to food as well as essential services. In a similar manner, other crimes such as the use of anti-personnel mines, the forced recruitment of children and sexual violence have also persisted. Given the limited state presence in many areas formerly controlled by FARC, illegal armed groups have been able to exploit the power vacuum to their own advantage.  

Estimated in the 2005 Census at 1.4 million and including 87 recognized communities (though some sources such as ONIC put the total at more than 100), Colombia’s indigenous population have struggled for decades to defend their lands from encroachment not only by rebel groups and criminal gangs, but also government-sponsored programmes for mining and oil or gas extraction. With hundreds of concessions granted in ancestral territory, indigenous communities have frequently found themselves on the frontline of violence and land rights violations, with activists regularly subjected to harassment, intimidation and killings. The impact of displacement and eviction from their land has also taken a heavy toll on the identity and wellbeing of some communities, with some experiencing high levels of anxiety, alcoholism and mental health issues. Rights groups have highlighted the risk that many smaller communities face of physical and cultural extinction.  

The Afro-Colombian community numbers around 4.3 million people, most of whom are based in urban areas. They are the majority population in towns in the North West and also live in low-income settlements in the major cities. Widespread displacement from communal lands has contributed to this process. Like the country’s indigenous population, Afro-Colombians have been particularly affected by violence and displacement resulting from the armed conflict, criminal violence and the drugs trade, with continued insecurity since the 2016 Peace AgreementTheir vulnerability is further by exacerbated by the profound social disparities they face, with high levels of unemployment, widespread poverty and limited access to essential services such as health care.  

Indigenous and Afro-Colombian community groups, joined by international allies, expressed their deep concern at the end of 2019 concerning the announcement, through a draft decree, by the Colombian authorities that they would revert to aerial spraying of illegal crops with glyphosate. In light of past experience, particularly during the US-sponsored Plan Colombia, indigenous and Afro-Colombian leaders expressed their fear that aerial spraying will have a direct negative impact on their communities’ health and the environment, while also increasing deforestationAlthough the draft decree excluded national parks and officially recognized ethnic territories requiring prior consultation, aerial spraying will push coca cultivation deeper into the forest, bringing with it armed groups and increased violence.

Updated June 2020

Environment 

Colombia is the fourth largest country in Latin America (1,141,748 square kilometres) and has the second largest population (over 44 million inhabitants). Colombia is bordered to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; to the North by the Atlantic Ocean, through the Caribbean Sea; and to the west by Panama and the Pacific Ocean. 

History 

Colombia’s history has been characterized by frequent periods of political violence and protracted civil war dating back to as early as the second half of the 19th century. The historic origins of the conflict can be traced back to traditional power struggles for political dominance and control of natural resources (e.g. land) waged between ruling political elites of the conservative (PC) and liberal parties (PL). The periods of 1899-1903 and 1948-1958 (La Violencia) were marked by bloody civil war and enduring phases of high intensity violence resulting in at least 200,000 deaths.  

In 1958 the PL and the PC formed a power sharing arrangement which excluded other political parties, sparking the emergence of the left-wing guerrilla movements: Ejército de Liberación Nacional (ELN), Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia – Ejército del Pueblo (FARC-EP), and into the 1970s the M-19 movement whose leaders eventually laid down their arms in 1989 and later became highly visible and influential in conventional politics. 

The nature and roots of Colombia’s conflict (1964-2016) evolved over time. The most recent phases of the conflict were deemed to be less based on political ideology and much more rooted in territorial and natural resource control involving international private capital, drug traffickers, right-wing paramilitaries, leftist guerrillas, government forces, and military and economic interventions from powerful western governments such as the United States. 

Initially the ELN and FARC declared their aims to be the removal of corrupt ruling elite whose power was based on patronage and exclusion. But the conflict persisted with both left-wing and rightwing armed groups becoming heavily involved in and reliant on the narcotics trade as a means of funding their war and amassing private wealth.  

The greatest number of victims were civilians and the majority of these drawn from Afro-Colombian and indigenous communities, who as a result of the conflict became victims of severe human rights violations, including forced displacements and disappearances, kidnappings, massacres, selected and systematic killings of their leaders, and the illegal usurpation of their lands, amongst other crimes. They also continued to suffer the highest levels of poverty and lacked access to basic social services such as healthcare and education. 

However, it must be stressed that this pattern of abuse did not start in the present round of conflict, but throughout their collective history, beginning in 1492 with the arrival of Christopher Columbus and the conquest of the Spanish colonists. The indigenous peoples were known to have lived on their territories for hundreds of years before Columbus’ arrival. The conquest led to the enslavement, and physical and cultural decimation of indigenous peoples, forced displacement from their ancestral lands, and the plundering of the natural resources found within them. 100 years after the colonial invasion the indigenous population had been reduced by 90 per cent and by the beginning of the sixteenth century the colonists were shipping in thousands of African slaves every year to replace them as manpower, the majority of whom ended up working the plantations and mines.  

However, by the end of the 16th century slave revolts and break-outs began to constitute a grave problem for the Spanish crown, as escaped slaves, who became known as Cimarrons began to organize politically and militarily in maroon or palenque communities which they protected with fences and armsThe palenque community of San Basilio in the municipality of Mahates de Bolivar established in 1603 has been declared as the first free town of the Americas. It was able to survive throughout the colonial period and its inhabitants have been able to preserve their culture until the present day, which is expressed through their language and traditional Afro-centric culture. 

Roma also constitute a significant ethnic minority in Colombia and their roots can be traced back to the arrival of Christopher Columbus who was said to have been accompanied by four Roma on his third expedition to the Americas. These four were said to have been beneficiaries of a ‘pardon’ granted to them by the Spanish crown which gave them the opportunity to set up home and begin afresh in the newly discovered Americas. 

By the 1970s indigenous and Afro-Colombian political and social movements became more consolidated and coherent in their strategies for the defence of their cultures, identities, land rights, traditional knowledge systems, languages and autonomy. Such struggles were later to be brought to fruition in the Constitution of 1991 which made minorities more visible in national life and sought to guarantee their fundamental human, political, social, economic and cultural rights. 

At around the same time, Colombia’s civil conflict began with the formation of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). Founded in the mid-1960s as the armed wing of the Colombian Communist Party, following attacks on rural Communist enclaves by the military in the wake of the decade-long period known as La Violencia (1948-58), when between 200,000 and 300,000 people were killed. FARC’s insurgency, inspired by Marxist-Leninist ideology and the recent revolution in Cuba, was rooted in grievances driven by the concentration of land in private hands and the profound inequalities between its ruling elite and its impoverished peasantry. However, in the ensuing years the group became increasingly dependent on criminal activities such as kidnapping, illegal gold mining and drug trafficking to fund itself, eventually making it one of the richest rebel movements in the world. 

The development of other armed insurgencies, the proliferation of paramilitary groups and the growth of Colombia’s vast cocaine market all contributed to decades of protracted insecurity. The government’s approach to addressing its drug trade, such as the United States-sponsored Plan Colombia, was typically characterized by violence and heavy-handed approaches such as aerial crop fumigation that had a devastating impact on rural communities. Despite periodic efforts at peace negotiations between the Colombian government and FARC, the conflict continued for more than five decades before a historic Peace Agreement was brokered by the government of Juan Manuel Santos in 2016.  

Though the terms of the agreement were narrowly rejected in a popular referendum in October 2016, the government and FARC signed a revised agreement the following month that was approved by Congress. Despite optimism about the end of the conflict, the country continues to contend with high levels of violence and insecurity, with many former conflict zones still blighted by the presence of criminal groups and paramilitaries. In addition, while most FARC fighters have formally demobilized, the National Liberation Army (ELN) remains in operation. There are also concerns that the perceived failure of the government to quickly deliver its commitments to development and service delivery in remote and impoverished regions could lead to a resurgence of rebel groups.  

Governance 

Before the 1991 Constitution, indigenous peoples were not recognized as equal citizens within the Colombian state and were not granted individual or collective civil, political, cultural, social and economic rights under Colombian law. Until then, indigenous peoples were defined and treated by the terms laid down in the law 089 of November 1890 which determined that the government in agreement with the church would decide on the way in which the Salvajes (savages) should be governed. The same law reduced indigenous peoples to the status of children or ‘minors’ specifically with regards to the management of the reservations, or resguardos, which had been created and granted to them under Spanish colonial rule. 

Although the original resguardo system established by colonists represented a strategy for social control, exploitation and segregation of the indigenous peoples, it later became the legal entity in which indigenous land rights became vested, and for which indigenous peoples fought as part of their struggle for the reclamation of their rights. The movement initiated by the Paéz farmer Manuel Quintin Lame, between 1910 and 1940 became the leading model and source of inspiration for successive indigenous movements and activists during the second half of the 20th century and into the 21st. 

After much protest and organizing during the 1970s and 1980s there was large-scale titling of forest lands to indigenous communities. The government recognized the territorial rights of indigenous peoples over some 1.8 million square kilometres of its Amazon area. Until the late 1980s it applied only to the lands of indigenous peoples outside the forest areas who could base their claims on ancient title. 

Colombia’s Constitution of 1991 drawn up by the National Constituent Assembly recognizes and protects the ethnic and cultural diversity of the Colombian nation. It concedes to minorities and indigenous peoples ethnic, cultural and territorial rights, and the right to autonomy and participation. It also declares the equality and dignity of all cultures as fundamental to national identity. It recognizes the languages spoken in Colombia as being official in the territories in which they are spoken. The Constitution also enshrines the right to bilingual and ethno-education for all minority and indigenous communities, and proffers dual citizenship to indigenous communities living in border areas.  

As a result, minority and indigenous communities have gained greater access and representation within national government and actively participate in political life at both regional and local levels. Such developments have also led to the creation and development of independent and state funded minority and indigenous-focused institutions which have offered minority and indigenous issues greater visibility and led to the limited political empowerment of these communities. Such institutions include the Department for Ethnic Affairs within the Ministry of the Interior, the National Commission on Indigenous Rights, the National Indigenous Policy Council, the Afro-Colombian Mayors Council (AMUNAFRO) and the Congressional Black Associates, amongst many others. Indigenous councils and organizations have also become legally recognized, and in ancestral territories or resguardos indigenous systems of justice are also officially recognized as holding jurisdiction. 

In 1993 the National Constituent Assembly passed Law 60 (Ley 60) which stipulated that the indigenous reservations would benefit from a certain percentage of state resource allocation proportional to the population found in the designated territory. In the same year, as a result of intense political pressure and campaigning from Afro-Colombian communities, the Constituent Assembly passed Law 70 (Ley 70), which granted land titles for the collective territories of Afro-Colombian communities. 

In 1999 the Roma population was recognized for the first time as a national ethnic group through Resolution 0222 of 2 September of that year. 

Importantly, the 2016 Peace Agreement included an ‘Ethnic Chapter in which a set of ‘principles, safeguards and guarantees’ were outlined to be implemented during the peace process as a means to protect the rights of Colombia’s ethnic minorities and indigenous peoples which had been violated as a consequence of the long-lasting conflict. The inclusion of these provisions was largely driven by the advocacy work of the Ethnic Commission for Peace and Defence of Territorial Rights, consisting of the National Afro-Colombian Peace Council, the National Indigenous Organization of Colombia (ONIC) and the National Afro-Colombian Peace Council (CONPA). Moreover, Point 5 of the Peace Agreement established a ‘Truth, Justice, Reparation and Non-Repetition System’, which sought to establish reparations and justice for victims of the conflict, as well as prevention of further abuses such as sexual violence and forced displacement of Afro-Colombianindigenous and rural communities. 

However, despite these important political advances, in reality, application of these laws has been somewhat inconsistent and patchy, and in the worst of cases simply disregarded. For example, in the same year of 1993 when the Laws 60 and 70 were passed, ONIC issued a region by region protest concerning government failure to provide land titles, and against continuing invasion by colonists. ONIC saw the granting of land to forest peoples under the resguardo system as an advantage, but this land is subsequently being declared ‘empty’ and therefore the property of the state. 

Among Afro-Colombians, Law 70 only applies to the Pacific communities, but while it limits the use these communities make of natural resources, no such limitations are set on the activities of private national and international logging, oil, mining and biofuel companies. Subsequent laws on mining and other forms of resources extraction have served only to undermine provisions outlined in the Constitution of 1991 guaranteeing minorities and indigenous peoples their territorial rights and the right to manage the resources found within those territories. 

Laws to limit migration from the mainland of Colombia in order to protect the Afro-Colombian Raizal community in San Andres and Providencia have been poorly enforced and the Raizal language and way of life are threatened by the wholesale buying and appropriation of the islanders lands by the tourism industry and foreign and mainland Colombian colonists.  

More recently, despite the stipulations in the ‘Ethnic Chapter’ of the Peace Agreementthere have been complaints regarding the lack of guarantees to ensure the effective participation of indigenous peoples and Afro-Colombians in its implementation. In September 2017, members of the Permanent Bureau for Co-ordination with Indigenous Peoples and Organizations declared themselves to be in a state of emergency and demanded that these provisions should be respected. 

Iván Duque Márquez became President in August 2018. A vocal critic of the 2016 Peace Agreement who regarded many of its provisions on reconciliation and rehabilitation as too lenient, Duque has taken a number of steps to revise the terms of the agreement since taking power. 

Updated June 2020

Minority based and advocacy organisations

General

Amnesty International
Tel: +57-1-334-5632
Website: www.amnesty.org

Association of Afro-Descendent Municipalities (AMUNAFRO)
Tel: +57-552-3431
Email: contacto@amunafro.com
Website: www.amunafro.com

Instituto Latinoamericano de Servicios Legales Alternativos
Tel: +57-1-288-0416, 288-4772
Email: ilsa@ilsa.org.co
Website: www.ilsa.org.co

Colectivo de Abogados ‘Jose Alvear Restrepo’ (CAJAR)
Website: www.colectivodeabogados.org

Movimiento Nacional Afrocolombiano Cimarrón
Tel: +57-1-284-8431

Organización Nacional Indígena de Colombia
Tel: +57-1-284-6815
Email: onic@onic.org.co
Website: www.onic.org.co

Afro-Colombians

Proceso de Comunidades Negras (PCN)
Website: www.renacientes.org

Asociación de Afrocolombianos Desplazados (AFRODES)
Website: www.afrodes.org

Association of Afro-Descendent Municipalities (AMUNAFRO)
Tel: +57-552-3431
Email: contacto@amunafro.com
Website: www.amunafro.com

Movimiento Nacional Afrocolombiano Cimarrón
Tel: +57-1-284-8431

Colombia: Paez and Guambiano
NASA KIWE Corporation
Website: www.nasakiwe.gov.co

U’wa

ASO U’wa – Autoridades Tradicionales Indígenas U’was del departamento de Boyacá
Tel: +57 883 8109/ 097 637 3354
Email: uwasmas@hotmail.com

Kankuamo

Organización Indígena Kankuama (OIK)
Tel: +57 – 095 573 4221/570 7252
Email: cabildokankui@hotmail.com

Embera

OREWA –Organización Regional Embera Wounan de Choco
Tel: 094 671 2340/094 671 9315
Email: orewacol2.telecom.com.co; embera40@hotmail.co; aci_orewa@hotmail.com

Cabildo Mayor Embera Katio del Alto Sinu (CAMAEMKA)
Tel: +57 094 777 1603
Fax: +57 094 768 9424
Email: Cabildosmayores@edatel.net

Sources and further reading

General

Bodley, John H. Victims of Progress. Mayfield. 1990.

Friedemann, N.S. de and Arocha, J., ‘Colombia’, in MRG (ed.), No Longer Invisible: Afro-Latin Americans Today, London, Minority Rights Publications, 1995.

Gates, H.L. and Appiah, Africana, 2006.

Gray, Andrew. The Amerindians of South America. Minority Rights Group.1987.

Jackson, J, The Crisis in Colombia: Consequences for Indigenous Peoples, American Anthropological Association, March 2003

Kucharz, T, Ecología Social: Palma de muerte: un arrasamiento de tierras a sangre y fuego, www.pachakuti.org, 15/01/07

Mosquera, J. de D., Las comunidades negras de Colombia, Bogotá, Movimiento Nacional Cimarrón, 1993.

ONIC, La ONIC Frente al Paramilitarismo en Colombia y el Proceso de Impunidad, June 2007

Pearce, J., Colombia: Inside the Labyrinth, London, Latin America Bureau, 1990.

Rappaport, J., The Politics of Memory: Native Historical Interpretation in the Colombian Andes, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Urban, G. and Sherzer, J. (eds), Nation-States and Indians in Latin America, Austin, University of Texas Press, 1994.

Wade, Peter, Blackness and Race Mixture: The Dynamics of Racial Identity in Colombia, Baltimore, MD, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.

Afro-Colombians

Friedemann, N.S. de and Arocha, J., ‘Colombia’, in MRG (ed.), No Longer Invisible: Afro-Latin Americans Today, London, Minority Rights Publications, 1995.

Inter-Agency Consultation on Race in Latin America (www.iac-race.org) Black Americas, and meeting summaries.

Mosquera, J. de D., Las comunidades negras de Colombia, Bogotá, Movimiento Nacional Cimarrón, 1993.

Wade, Peter, Blackness and Race Mixture: The Dynamics of Racial Identity in Colombia, Baltimore, MD, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.

González Camargo, M, Etnia Movimiento Social y Discriminación. Las dinámicas de reivindicación afro en Colombia.

Paez and Guambiano

Organización Nacional Indigena de Colombia ONIC, http://www.onic.org.co/pueblo_mes.htm

Rappaport, J., The Politics of Memory: Native Historical Interpretation in the Colombian Andes, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Urban, G. and Sherzer, J. (eds), Nation-States and Indians in Latin America, Austin, University of Texas Press, 1994.

Wayúu

Rappaport, J., The Politics of Memory: Native Historical Interpretation in the Colombian Andes, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Urban, G. and Sherzer, J. (eds), Nation-States and Indians in Latin America, Austin, University of Texas Press, 1994.

Arhuaco

Rappaport, J., The Politics of Memory: Native Historical Interpretation in the Colombian Andes, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Urban, G. and Sherzer, J. (eds), Nation-States and Indians in Latin America, Austin, University of Texas Press, 1994.

Nukak and Tukano

Århem, Kaj 1981. Makuna social organization. A study in descent, alliance and the formation of corporate groups in the North-Western Amazon. USCA 4. Uppsala/ Estocolmo: Almqvist & Wiksell International.

Århem, Kaj 2002. Animals have culture too: Anismism among the Tukanoans. Acta Americana, 10/2. Uppsala/ Estocolmo: SAMS.

Brandhuber, Gabriele 1999. Why Tukanoans migrate? Some remarks on conflict on the Upper Rio Negro, (Brazil). JSAP 85.

Buchillet, Dominique 1983. Gender ideology and social relations in the Northwest Amazon. Working Papers on South American Indians, No 5.

Contreras Vásquez, Julián 1989. Marriage, language, and history among the Eastern Tukanoan speaking peoples of the Northwest Amazon. Latin American Anthropology Review 1/2: 36-42.

Jackson, Jean E.  1976. Vaupés marriage: a network system in the Northwest Amazon. En: C.A. Smith (comp.), Regional analysis, vol. 2, Social systems: 65-93. New York: Academic Press.

Jackson, Jean E. 1983. The Fish People. Linguistic exogamy and Tukanoann identity in Northwest Amazonia. Cambridge: CUP.

Jackson, Jean E.  1984. Vaupés marriage practices. En: K. Kensinger (ed.), Marriage practices in Lowland South America: 156-179.

Jackson, Jean E.  1988. Gender relations in the central Northwest Amazon. Antropológica 70: 17-68. Caracas.

Jackson, Jean E.  1991a. Being and becoming an Indian in the Vaupés. En: G. Urban & J. Sherzer (comp.), Nation-States and Indians in Latin-America: 131-155. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Jackson, Jean E.  1991b. Hostile encounters between Nukak and Tukanoans: changing ethnic identity in the Vaupés. The Journal of Ethnic Studies 19/2: 17-39.

Jackson, Jean E. 1995. Culture, genuine and spurious: the politics of Indianness in the Vaupés, Colombia. AE 22/1: 3-27.

Rappaport, J., The Politics of Memory: Native Historical Interpretation in the Colombian Andes, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Reichel-Dolmatoff, Gerardo 1996. The forest within: the world-view of the Tukano Amazonian Indians. Themis Books.

Urban, G. and Sherzer, J. (eds), Nation-States and Indians in Latin America, Austin, University of Texas Press, 1994.

Kankuamos

Fundación Hemera: Comunicación, vida y desarrollo, Tensa calma en la Sierra: Situación del Pueblo Kankuamo, Bogota, September 2006.

U’wa

Resguardo Indígena Unido U’wa, Cubara, Boyacá,, Comunicado a la Opinión Nacional e Internacional, Colombia, January 2007.

Informe especial: U’was Tienen Derecho A Seguir Siendo Lo Que Han Siendo, 2007

Osorio, C J, ” Esa ley la tengo en el corazón y el casete, metido aquí en la cabeza” Dice máximo emblema U’wa”, Actualidad Étnica, 06/07/2007.

Embera

Consejo de Autoridades Indígenas del Choco – OREWA, Comunicado a la Opinión Publica, June 1 2007.

ONIC, Alerta desde el Choco!!, Comunicado a la Opinión Publica, 23 April 2007, www.etniasdecolombia.org