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According to the 2010 national census, there are 72, 959 Khakass in the Russian Federation. Khakass ethnicity is derived from a mixture of Uygur Turkic, Tuvan and other groups. The majority of Khakass live in the Khakass Republic and adjacent areas in southern Siberia.

The Khakass religion is a mixture of shamanist-animist and Eastern Orthodox beliefs.

Historical context

The groups that came to form the Khakass fell under Russian domination in the seventeenth century. Prior to the Bolshevik Revolution, these groups did not identify themselves by a single name. In the early twentieth century, a nationalist movement sprang up among Khakass as a reaction to Russian immigration. After the Bolshevik Revolution, in response to Khakass nationalist demands, the Soviet regime established an Autonomous Okrug (AOk) in 1925 and this became an Autonomous Oblast (AO) in 1930. The traditionally close ties to Tuvans and Altai have led nationalists to demand the restoration of the ‘historical unity’ of Khakassia, Altai and Tuva.

Current issues

Language shift and identity loss is a concern to many Khakass. According to a survey conducted by scholars at Khakassia State University in 2002 and published in 2005, 35 per cent of students in the republican capital Abakan were studying Khakass. Yet only 2 per cent reported using the language with their parents and 22 per cent with their grandparents, while none reported using it with their friends. As they make up a minority of the population even within Khakassia, there have been limited opportunities to mobilize for political support on these issues, though community members are reportedly experiencing a renewed interest in their language and culture.

 

Khants and Massi

 

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According to the 2010 national census, there are 30,943 Khants and 12,269 Mansi in the Russian Federation. Khants are culturally and linguistically close to the Mansi. Khants and Mansi together make up the Ob-Ugrian branch of the Ugrian division of the Uralo-Altaic language family. They are mainly shamanist-animists. Khants and Mansi live mainly in the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug (AOk)-Yurga in Tyumen Oblast.

Historical context

The Khants and Mansi came under Russian influence from the sixteenth century. Their traditional economy was based on reindeer herding, hunting, fishing and trapping. The literary language of Khants was established in 1930 and that of Mansi in 1932. Both converted to a Cyrillic script in 1939-40.

The Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug was established in December 1930. In March 1993 the okrug authorities decided to press for the status of a separate republic. Similar demands were also made in Yamalo-Nenets, but neither territory succeeded in acquiring the status of republic, a reflection of weak political nationalism.

Current issues

The Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug is Russia’s main oil-producing region. Oil development in the region has endangered the ecology supporting the Khanty-Mansi, encouraging the formation of civic associations to defend land rights of the region’s indigenous peoples and mobilize for ecologically sustainable development. Industrial development has progressively severed ties with traditional ways of life, and according to reports less than half of Khants and Mansi are involved in traditional activities today.

In April 2014, a conflict erupted between Khants in Nizhnevartovsk region and an oil company planning to build a road to one of its oil reserves over Khants customary lands without their consent. Khants activists successfully blocked the road construction. A similar situation was faced by the Aipin family, who had traditionally been involved in deer husbandry, and eventually managed to regain their pastures and to prevent the Lukoil oil company from building oil-wells on their land.